Dr. Julie Fairman is the Nightingale Professor in Honor of Military Veterans and Chair of the Biobehavioral Health Department at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing. She is an internationally known historian of nursing, as well as a policy expert in the area of scope of practice regulations. She has published four books, several winning awards, and articles appearing in the NEJM, JAMA, and Matrix, and was an early inductee into the Sigma Theta Tau Research Hall of Fame. Her work has been cited in Congressional Testimony and Federal Trade Commission reports. In 2009 she was the ANA/ANF/AAN Distinguished Nurse Scholar in Residence at the National Academy of Medicine where she worked with the Future of Nursing Report. She recently gave the Fielding H. Garrison lecture at the annual meeting of the American Association for the History of Medicine and was the first nurse to do so in 75 years. Her current research focuses on health as a Civil Right, unearthing the work of nurses in the 1960’s Civil Rights Movement, and the costs of collaborative practice agreements.